The Calibration process is defined as a process for deforming a metal bar with the aim of reducing its cross section.
This process can be carried out in various forms by drawing or multi-pass drawing. Nueva Incal transforms steel by cold drawing, consisting of reducing the cross-section of a piece using a die made from a very hard material inserted in a steel block. This reduction depends on the opening in the die.
The main advantages of the drawing process compared to multi-pass drawing are:
- Greater control over tolerances.
- Better surface finish.
- Mechanical properties: greater bending strength and higher hardness. Improved machinability.
A descaling or cleaning process is performed before the drawing process to remove possible oxides, rolling scale, etc. At Nueva Incal, the descaling process is carried out by shot blasting the surface of the bars, using balls made of hard material.
Lubricants need to be used to facilitate the drawing process and avoid damaging the material surface when reducing its cross section.
Once the material has been drawn, it is straightened. The material may need heat treatment to improve its mechanical properties.